A Constant Threat
It’s simply a matter of time before a vulnerable project is attacked. If a blockchain is not secure, it becomes a target for malicious hackers.
Stolen funds are only the beginning of the damage an attack causes. Negative media coverage and reduced faith in the project are also inevitable.
Any Blockchain Project
Blockchains outside of the Komodo ecosystem can utilize Komodo’s Security Service, too.
Any Hashing Algorithm
All UTXO-based blockchains are eligible, regardless of the consensus mechanism or hashing algorithm.
Protection Against 51% Attacks
A 51% attack is the most commonly-used attack vector. Komodo’s Security Service provides an extra layer of security to deter potential thieves from targeting your blockchain.
Preserve Your Project’s Reputation
When a successful attack occurs, confidence in a blockchain is destroyed. Adopt Komodo’s Blockchain Security Service to preserve the integrity of your project.
Maintain Progress Made
Centralized exchanges may choose to delist insecure blockchains. Safeguard the progress you’ve made and stay listed with Komodo’s security solution.
Focus On Your Passions
Outsource security so you can concentrate on what you’re most passionate about— making your blockchain project a success.
*KREDS and SUQA have joined Komodo's Security Alliance but are still going through the integration process and are thus not yet being protected by dPoW.
“We’re incredibly excited about this Komodo integration, as it offers an extra layer of security that very few other POW coins currently have. Our new Komodo notarization feature greatly reduces the impact of such an attack. Komodo notaries are running GameCredits clients and monitoring the network 24/7/365.”
“The Einsteinium network experienced a real 51% attack. Komodo dPoW, that we implemented in our code recently, kicked in and protected the chain. We are very pleased that this solution worked well and that Einsteinium chain is protected from any attacks in the future.”
A block hash from every protected blockchain is saved onto the KMD chain using the OP_RETURN command, providing all previous transactions with an added layer of security.
Every ten minutes, a block hash from the KMD chain is written onto the BTC ledger, extending Bitcoin-level security to all of the transactions that occurred prior to the most recently-notarized block.
This process takes place every ten minutes, continuously protecting all integrated chains with the power of the Bitcoin network. It’s Bitcoin-level security at a tiny fraction of the cost.
Security For Komodo Blockchains
Protect your chain with BTC-level security. Blockchains created with Komodo’s technology receive discounted pricing. Inquire with a service provider for more information.
Security For External Blockchains
Get BTC-level security for any UTXO-based blockchain outside of the Komodo ecosystem. Inquire with a service provider for pricing and integration time estimation.
Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) FAQs
No, dPoW and dPoS are completely different. They don’t have much in common, apart from the first 3 letters of their acronyms.
Delegated Proof of Stake (dPoS) is a specific implementation of Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus rules that uses voting and and election processes to provide security. In short, all holders of a dPoS coin vote on which “witnesses” or “delegates” that they would like to entrust with the power of creating and validating blocks. Since all dPoS witnesses are heavily invested in the currency of that particular blockchain, it is assumed that it’s in their own interest to behave and validate blocks honestly.
Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) is a second-layer security mechanism that works in addition to a blockchain’s ordinary consensus rules. dPoW provides Bitcoin-level security through a series of cross-chain notarizations. These notarizations are performed by Komodo’s Notary Node network.
Unlike witnesses or delegates in a dPoS system, Notary Nodes do not have the ability to create, validate, reject, or change transactions or blocks.
Although Notary Node operators are chosen in an annual stake-weighted election, there is no voting or electoral procedure involved in the functioning of dPoW itself. Instead, dPoW relies on network-wide consensus to decide which blocks to notarize. Then, the Notary Node network simply follows the notarization orders they’ve been given.
No, dPoW is not centralized at all. In fact, it is a fully decentralized process.
First, it’s essential to note that dPoW is not an ordinary consensus mechanism— it is a secondary security mechanism that exists in addition to a blockchain’s ordinary consensus rules. For instance, if a Proof of Stake (PoS) chain adopts dPoW, that blockchain’s decentralized network will still decide which transactions and blocks are valid according to its staking rules. Then, after the network has already come to consensus and determined which blocks are valid, the network will come to consensus a second time to decide which block will be notarized via dPoW.
To make that a little more clear: each node in the network of any dPoW-protected blockchain must come to consensus on which block will be notarized to the KMD blockchain before a notarization can take place. Thus, it is a decentralized consensus process.
Second, dPoW is decentralized because the notarization process is distributed among a global network of 64 community-elected Notary Nodes. While the notarization process is not fully decentralized, it is important to note that disrupting notarizations simply prevents BTC-level security. Each blockchain’s original consensus rules will still apply, even in the worst case scenario of malicious and/or colluding Notary Nodes.
Notarization transactions are 13-of-64 multi-sig transactions, with Komodo’s Notary Nodes serving as the 64 potential signers. Again, Notary Nodes only participate in notarization transactions once the network has come to consensus on which block will be notarized. After a block has been notarized, the network will not accept any re-orgs that try to replace that block. A notarized block becomes completely immutable.
dPoW is not permissioned, as it is a completely open source technology. Anyone can adopt dPoW by setting up their own Notary Node network and integrating dPoW to their blockchain.
Using Komodo’s Notary Node network is permissioned, in the sense that any blockchain that wishes to integrate with the network must work closely with the Komodo Dev Team. Komodo’s Notary Node network must make updates to start notarizing a new blockchain.
dPoW is not permissioned in the sense that the Komodo team decides who can use dPoW and who cannot. Everyone is welcome to adopt dPoW and the Komodo team has never denied a request from a blockchain project that wants to start using Komodo’s Notary Nodes for dPoW.
It’s important to bear in mind that, in a way, all blockchains are permissioned. For example, only core developers can make changes to a blockchain’s source code. Allowing anyone to make changes to a blockchain’s soure code would introduce major security vulnerabilities. The same is true for dPoW— allowing any blockchain to integrate to the Notary Node network without supervision from the Komodo Dev Team would present security risks. As such, projects that want to use Komodo’s Notary Nodes must work closely with the Komodo Dev Team.
It’s important to re-emphasize that using Komodo’s Notary Node network is not a requirement for adopting dPoW. Setting up a notary node network is costly and time-consuming, but it is an option available to those concerned about using Komodo’s permissioned Notary Nodes.
Not at all. Technically speaking, Notary Nodes and Masternodes do not share any similarities.
Masternodes typically have special powers, such as the ability to provide lightning payments or privacy features. Both Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) blockchain networks can have Masternodes.
To run a Masternode on a project’s network, you must hold a significant investment in that project’s currency. For this investment of funds and services, Masternode operators are rewarded with a certain percentage of block rewards.
On the other hand, Notary Nodes are dedicated servers that perform notarization transactions. You do not need to hold any KMD to become a Notary Node operator. Anyone can become a Notary Node operator by getting elected in Komodo’s annual Notary Node election.
Most of the Notary Node network’s notarization transactions occur on the Komodo blockchain itself, which writes important blockchain data from all dPoW-protected blockchains onto the KMD ledger. Then, roughly every ten minutes, Notary Nodes also perform one notarization transaction on the Bitcoin blockchain, providing BTC-level security to all dPoW chains.
Apart from participating in notarization transactions, Notary Nodes have no special powers. They do not have the power to approve or reject transactions or blocks. They do not have the power to decide which blocks get validated by a blockchain’s network; all ordinary consensus rules still apply. Notary Nodes simply perform cross-chain notarizations after the network has come to consensus on which block should be notarized.
Each Notary Node is given the opportunity to mine one block with an easy difficulty level roughly every 100 blocks. As the KMD blockchain has one minute block times and 3 KMD block rewards, this amounts to roughly 1500 KMD per month per Notary Node. This incentivizes talented system administrators to act as Notary Node operators in the Komodo ecosystem.
It’s hard to put an exact figure on the cost of dPoW security. There are several ways to approach the question.
For instance, over $300,000 USD in electricity costs get dumped into Bitcoin mining. Since dPoW provides BTC-level security, this might be a reasonable starting place in determining the “value” of dPoW.
Another way to think about the cost of dPoW is to consider how much Komodo pays out of pocket for dPoW to function. Komodo spends approximately 180 BTC per year in Bitcoin transaction fees to keep dPoW running. These transaction fees are drawn from the 2,639 BTC raised in Komodo’s ICO in November 2016. So a reasonable estimate for the cost of dPoW would be .493 BTC per day.
But even this estimate doesn’t account for all of Komodo’s costs. Komodo’s 64 Notary Nodes are operating around the clock to ensure that notarization transactions are occurring regularly. This has real costs, such as the cost of the hardware and the electricity to run all 64 servers, plus the time and skills of the Notary Node operators. Moreover, Komodo’s Lead Dev James ‘jl777’ spent countless hours developing dPoW to begin with— surely, that is worth something!
Perhaps the question of relevance is this: how much does it cost for a third-party project to adopt dPoW?
To promote the mass adoption of blockchain technology and help make the blockchain space more secure, Komodo charges third-party projects a small fraction of the real costs of dPoW. All projects are welcome to join in.
The cost of adopting dPoW is variable, depending on several factors, such as the protocol, consensus rules, and hashing algorithm of the blockchain seeking to adopt dPoW. Blockchains launched with Komodo’s technology pay significantly lower fees than external third-party blockchain projects. Please contact [email protected] for a consultation and price quote.